Restrictive agreements and cartels

Restrictive agreements and cartels guidance:

Article 101(1) TFEU prohibits agreements which may affect trade between Member States and which have as their object or effect the prevention, restriction or distortion...

Practice Note

Cartels are considered to be the most pernicious anti-competitive practices under Article 101 TFEU. As such, they are subject to a specific legal regime, which includes,...

Practice Note

There are several ways in which a supplier can distribute its product. A supplier may: • distribute products or services itself • use a distributor, or • use an agent. In...

Practice Note

Land agreements are not an area that most people would associate with competition law concerns but care is needed to ensure that no such concerns arise. A land agreement...

Practice Note

Most-favoured nation clauses (MFNs, also called parity clauses) are vertical arrangements whereby the terms and condition of supply are set by reference to the terms and...

Practice Note

The concept of concerted practice laid down in Article 101(1) TFEU enables the European Commission (Commission), national competition authorities and national courts to...

Practice Note

Article 101(1) TFEU and Article 102 TFEU will only apply to market conduct (whether agreements/concerted practices or unilateral conduct) that may...

Practice Note

Article 101(1) TFEU prohibits agreements and concerted practices which may affect trade between EU Member States and which may have the object or effect of preventing,...

Practice Note

ARCHIVED–this archived practice note provides information on EU competition law and big data and algorithms and reflects the position at the date of publication (11...

Practice Note

There are often legitimate reasons why companies enter into agreements that contain provisions or obligations that risk restricting competition. In...

Practice Note

Generally, agreements that have either the object or effect of restricting, distorting or preventing competition are prohibited. Agreements with an anti-competitive...

Practice Note

Under EU competition law, a parent company may be held jointly and severally liable for antitrust violations committed by its subsidiary, where the parent...

Practice Note

The prohibition on anti-competitive agreements applies to 'decisions by associations of undertakings', agreements entered into by individual undertakings and collusive...

Practice Note

The interaction between state involvement in the market, competition and EU law needs to be considered from a number of often interrelated dimensions. The competition law...

Practice Note

The concept of ’single and continuous infringement‘ (SCI) enables the European Commission (and national competition authorities more generally) to lump a series of...

Practice Note

A joint venture is a commercial arrangement whereby two or more independent companies combine or pool their resources, assets or business units in order to develop a...

Practice Note