The following Commercial practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
Brexit: As of exit day (11pm on 31 January 2020) the UK is no longer an EU Member State. However, in accordance with the Withdrawal Agreement, the UK has entered an implementation period, during which it continues to be subject to EU law. This has an impact on this Practice Note. For further guidance, see Brexit Bulletin—key updates, research tips and resources and Brexit toolkit.
This Practice Note sets out the law on the use of boilerplate provisions in business-to-consumer (B2C) contracts. As well as providing details on the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (which regulates unfair terms in B2C contracts), it also looks at the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) guidance ‘Unfair contract terms: CMA37’.
For discussion on the use of specific boilerplate provisions in B2C contracts, namely adjudication, alternative dispute resolution (ADR), arbitration, assignment, definitions and interpretation, entire agreement, force majeure, governing law, jurisdiction, variation and waiver, see Practice Note: Boilerplate clauses in business-to-consumer contracts—specific clauses.
For more information on the use of standard terms and conditions in B2C contracts generally, see Practice Notes:
Consumer standard terms and conditions—the business context
Consumer standard terms and conditions—the advertising and marketing context, and
Consumer standard terms and conditions—online ‘read and understood’ declarations
For our suite of template B2C contracts and drafting tips, see ‘Drafting contracts with consumers’ in: Consumer protection contractual relationships—overview and Drafting consumer contracts—checklist.
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The principle of transferred maliceIf a person has a malicious intent towards X and, in carrying out that intent, injures Y, he is guilty of an offence. So, if D shoots at A with intent to kill him but kills B by mistake it is murder; the mistake as to the identity of the victim is irrelevant as D
Tipping off and prejudicing an investigationIt would undermine the benefit to the authorities if, a suspicious activity report (SAR) having been made, the alleged offender were to be made aware of the interest in their activities so that they could take steps to cover up their misdeeds or disappear.
This Practice Note provides guidance on claims for ‘use and occupation’ or mesne profits, and how and when double rent or double value can be claimed.Claims for use and occupationA claim for use and occupation is possible where there is occupation of land without an express agreement fixing the
What is recklessness?In respect of some statutory offences and common law crimes the prosecution are required to prove a mental element of recklessness on the part of the defendant.Recklessness means unjustified risk taking on the part of the accused.Prior to the House of Lords decision in Re G
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