The following Commercial practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
This Practice Note deals with the relationships arising between principals, agents and third parties with whom the agent deals on the principal’s behalf. It considers the principal’s liability for its agent, agent’s authority including remedies for breach of authority, fraud and misrepresentation, and the notions of disclosed and undisclosed principal.
A principal is normally liable for all acts of an agent within the agent’s authority, whether responsibility arises in contract or in tort. Authority means the agent’s actual, apparent (ostensible) or usual (customary) authority. For more information, see Practice Note: Scope and authority of the agent.
Restrictions or conditions placed on an agent’s authority by the principal will relieve the principal of liability against third parties who have or ought to have notice of the extent of the agent’s authority.
However, in the absence of such notice, a principal will not be able to escape liability for acts of the agent which fall within the apparent scope of its authority.
Where the act of an agent is beyond the actual or apparent scope of the agent’s authority, the principal is not bound or liable for such act.
However where the principal has received the money or property of a third party as a result of the agent acting beyond its authority, then the principal will become liable to the extent of the benefit received.
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This Practice Note considers the different categories of contractual damages that may be available for financial loss (pecuniary loss), ie expectation-based damages, reliance-based damages and gains-based damages.For guidance on contractual damages generally, see Practice Note: Contractual
Company directors are not, by virtue only of their office as director, automatically entitled under company law to remuneration for services as a director or to reimbursement of expenses incurred in rendering such services. Power to pay directors remuneration for their services will need to be
For guidance on the basic features of the doctrine of estoppel and the different classifications it has been subject to, see Practice Note: Estoppel—what, when and how to plead and related content.Promissory estoppel—what is it?Where A has, by words or conduct, made to B a clear and unequivocal
Brexit: The UK's departure from the EU on exit day ie Friday 31 January 2020 has implications for practitioners dealing with provisions in the CPR relevant to cross border matters, including CPR 5.4C (discussed below). For guidance on the impact of Brexit on the CPR, see Cross border
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