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This Practice Note is important first stage reading for analysing vertical restraints, that is, restrictions in vertical agreements caught by Article 101(1) TFEU (see The...

Practice Note

A growing proportion of retail sales are taking place online. Many consumers purchase goods via online marketplaces, such as Amazon, eBay and Alibaba. National boundaries...

Practice Note

Some of the world's most visited sites such as eBay, Alibaba, Facebook and Twitter have faced criticism from some brand owners for their failure to police IP...

Practice Note

This Practice Note provides an introduction to the business to business (B2B) e-commerce sector and covers: • the meaning of ‘e-commerce’ • the role of the sector • the...

Practice Note

This Practice Note provides guidance on key legal issues in business to business (B2B) e-commerce conducted using websites, mobile apps and/or emails, including: •...

Practice Note

This Practice Note sets out some of the key legal issues to consider when designing and developing a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce website for trading with...

Practice Note

This Practice Note considers the following legal and commercial issues relating to cloud services: • Due diligence • Contract documents • Service description • Service...

Practice Note

The growing economic importance of the online sector has brought it into the focus of competition authorities around the world including. In Europe, the European...

Practice Note

This Practice Note examines the law on the use of cookies and similar technologies: • Types of cookies and similar technologies • PECR 2003 and cookies • Responsibility...

Practice Note

Issues to consider This Practice Note assumes knowledge of, and should be read in conjunction with, the following Practice Notes: • Copyright—subsistence and...

Practice Note

Though taking preventative steps obviously makes good sense (see Practice Note: Cybercrime prevention), it is not possible to totally eradicate the risk of cybercrime or...

Practice Note

Cybercrime is a challenge for internal compliance teams requiring a wider response than, 'it's a job for the IT department'. Cyber risk, like any other risk to your...

Practice Note

This Practice Note is intended to provide an overview of the laws and regulations relating to cybersecurity, with a particular focus on: • the General Data Protection...

Practice Note

ARCHIVED: This archived Practice Note provides information on the Digital Economy Act 2010 and early s 97A website blocking. This Practice Note is for background...

Practice Note

This Practice Note explains the legal and practical issues relevant to digital rights management and discusses the extent to which technical devices and other protection...

Practice Note

This Practice Note analyses the legal and commercial issues arising out of direct marketing activities. It covers the following: • What is direct marketing? • Regulatory...

Practice Note

This Practice Note is aimed primarily at brands wanting to use influencers for particular social marketing campaigns and advertising promotions. It is intended to give an...

Practice Note

The purpose of this Practice Note is to examine and explain the intellectual property rights (IPRs) likely to exist in a website and the extent to which these can be...

Practice Note

The E-Commerce Directive (Council Directive 2000/31/EC), which deals with certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce in the...

Practice Note

This Practice Note explains the manner in which intellectual property and other rights apply in the context of linking on the web, with specific regard to the perspective...

Practice Note

The use of metatags and keyword advertising is legal, but has led to litigation where website owners have used the trade marks of competitors as keywords to divert web...

Practice Note

This Practice Note considers some of the specific issues that may arise in the context of Norwich Pharmacal applications against online service providers. For further...

Practice Note

This Practice Note introduces common types of online advertising and marketing, and highlights relevant legal issues. Online, digital, and social media (collectively...

Practice Note

This Practice Note analyses the following commercial and legal issues relating to online behavioural advertising (OBA), targeted advertising, profiling and automated...

Practice Note

This Practice Note considers the rules on the portability of online content services in the internal market. It covers: • Background • The mandatory portability...

Practice Note

This Practice Note introduces the concept of secondary ticketing in the online marketplace and outlines the key legal issues, covering the following: • What is secondary...

Practice Note

The provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988) apply in relation to dealing with database rights and databases as they do to copyright and...

Practice Note

This Practice Note examines the legal risks associated with leveraging social media and user-generated content (UGC) and provides practical guidance as to how parties...

Practice Note

This Practice Note explains the manner in which intellectual property and certain other rights, as well as data protection obligations, apply in the context of web...

Practice Note

All websites should be accessible, especially by people with disabilities. Access to websites is governed by the Equality Act 2010 (EqA 2010) (which replaced the...

Practice Note