This Practice Note is a snapshot on the 2020 EU Climate and Energy Package also known as the 20–20-20 package. It aims to achieve a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions a 20% share of energy from renewable sources and a 20% improvement in energy efficiency by 2020. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the 2030 Climate and Energy Framework adopted by EU leaders in October 2014. The framework complements and builds on pre-existing policies, such as the 2020 EU Climate and Energy Package with the view of tackling more effectively climate change and the EU energy dependency on non-EU countries in the years to come. The Practice Note considers the key elements to the 2030 Climate and Energy Framework, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, reform of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), EU targets for the share of renewable energy and energy efficiency, a connected internal energy market and energy security. It also looks at targets introduced by the Clean Energy Package. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note is a snapshot of the ambient air quality and cleaner air Directive 2008/50/EC, which aims to protect human health and the environment by establishing measures to monitor the purity of ambient (or outside) air, and removing any pollutants, to ensure the air we breathe is as clean as possible. It looks at main changes to this directive, key requirements and definitions, competent authorities, zones and agglomerations, air quality assessment, air quality management, plans, information and reporting and implementation measures. It also covers the infringement proceedings against the UK for breaches of the directive related to nitrogen dioxide levels in certain air quality zones. It was produced in partnership with Laura Bolado. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note explains the existing procedures for the revision (amendment) of the EU Treaties and provides some examples of their usage after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. It also provides general guidance on ratification and tips on which ‘Treaties’ are not to be considered EU Treaties per se.
This Practice Note provides background to the coming into force of Renewable Energy Directive 2018/2001/EC (RED II). RED II came into force on 24 December 2018. A new Practice Note is being produced providing a snapshot of RED II as in force.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the Bathing Waters Directive 2006/7/EC. The Bathing Water Directive moves from simple sampling and monitoring of bathing waters to bathing quality management. It provides for better information to be available to citizens about the quality of their bathing waters, including logos, and supplements the Water Framework Directive (WFD). It was produced in partnership with Laura Bolado. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the Birds Directive 2009/147/EC, which deals with the conservation of all species of naturally occurring wild birds in the EU. It covers the protection, management and control of these species and sets out rules for their exploitation. It was produced in partnership with Laura Bolado. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note provides an overview of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, where it comes from, how it was interpreted before the Treaty of Lisbon and, most importantly, how it is applied following the entry into force of the Treaty. In addition it explains and contrasts the Council of Europe’s Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), the rulings of its Court (ECtHR) and how they interact with the EU as a whole, particularly with EU case law. It also makes reference to the situation of the UK with regard to the application of the Charter and the scope for divergence between UK and EU law in this area post-Brexit.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the Clean Energy Package (also known as the EU ‘Winter Package’ or ‘Winter Energy Package’) that was presented as a set of legislative proposals and policy measures by the European Commission in late November 2016. The package comprises measures in various energy-related areas including energy efficiency, renewables, the Energy Union and aims to empower consumers while delivering economic growth and jobs creation.
This Practice Note examines the doctrine of direct effect of EU law and illustrates with reference to EU case law the requirements established for it to apply. Both direct and indirect effect are considered, with case law examples, and the definition of ‘emanation from the State’ is also explored. This Practice Note also provides a visual aid to simplify the cases where direct effect can arise.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) 2009/406/EC, which establishes binding annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets for Member States for the period 2013–20 for GHG emissions from most sectors not included in the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), such as transport, buildings, agriculture and waste. The Practice Note considers the purpose and scope of the ESD, key definitions and requirements, emissions levels for the period 2013–2020, energy efficiency improvements, use of credits from project activities, reporting and evaluation of progress, what corrective action can be taken where a Member State’s emissions exceed the annual emission allocation (AEA), adjustments applicable upon the approval by the EU of an international agreement on climate change, as well as changes made to Directive 2003/87/EC and Regulation (EU) 994/2008, and the Commission’s reporting requirements to evaluate the implementation of the ESD. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU which establishes a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its 20% energy efficiency target by 2020 and its updated targets under the Clean Energy Package for 2030. It requires all EU countries to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain from its production to its final consumption. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This archived Practice Note is a snapshot of the Energy Labelling Directive 2010/30/EU (Energy Labelling Directive) which established a framework for the harmonisation of national measures on end-user information for energy-related products via labelling and standard product information. The Energy Labelling Directive was repealed by Regulation (EU) 2017/1369 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2017 setting a framework for energy labelling. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the EU Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050. It is used as a basis of EU actions in sectors such as energy, construction, transport, energy-intensive industries, etc which are core to improving energy efficiency and developing a low-carbon economy in the years to come. The roadmap will help the EU deliver greenhouse gas reductions of 80% by 2050 (compared with 1990 levels) with intermediate cuts of 25% by 2020, 40% by 2030 and 60% by 2040 and ensure that the EU ETS remains a key driver for low-carbon investments. This Practice Note considers the intended benefits and key elements of the EU 2050 low-carbon economy roadmap, as well as the developments in European climate policies which have followed the roadmap including the European Green Deal and European Climate Law. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the EU Climate Change Policy and provides an overview of the EU action taken in the fight against climate change from the 1990's to the present. It helps identify the areas where the EU measures have been more effective and highlights the progress made in the past 25 years. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note provides a summary of the Floods Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risks. It covers the purpose, scope, and key provisions of the Floods Directive, as well as details of the Flood Risk Regulations 2009, SI 2009/3042 (as amended) in England and Wales. It was produced in partnership with Laura Bolado.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the Fuel Quality Directive 2009/30/EC, which establishes a framework for monitoring and reducing fuel life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, helping to achieve GHG reduction goals and ensure the sustainability of biofuels. It focuses on the amendments made by the Fuel Quality Directive to Directive 98/70/EC (as regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas-oil) and Directive 1999/32/EC (relating to a reduction in the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels). It also considers implementation in England and Wales. It was produced in partnership with Laura Bolado. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
This Practice Note explains the requirements and limits of the doctrine of indirect effect, or consistent interpretation of national law with EU law, which EU Member States’ courts are obliged to apply should their national legal orders permit. The evolution of the doctrine at EU level is presented from a chronological viewpoint.
This is a powerpoint introduction to the EU legal system with emphasis on environmental law. It has been produced by EU law specialist Laura Bolado. The slides can be used for training purposes and include speaker notes and tips on legal research. It provides an overview of the founding treaties, the institutional framework and the sources and principles of EU law. It explains how EU law is superior to Member State’s national law and how the Commission can commence infringement proceedings against non-compliant states. The powerpoint concludes by looking at the implications of Brexit.
This Practice Note is a snapshot on the Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC, which establishes a common framework and objectives for the prevention, protection and conservation of the marine environment against damaging human activities. This Practice Note also links to related Brexit content.
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