This Practice Note explains the law and practicalities relating to bills of lading and sea waybills in the context of an arrangement for the carriage of goods by sea. It explains the differences between bearer bills, order bills and sea waybills and explains how the functions of the bill of lading as a receipt, document of title and contractual document. The Practice Note also explains who the parties to the contract of carriage are and their interplay with third parties and how a transfer of rights under the documentation may be achieved.
This Practice Note provides a summary of the common law and conventions governing international carriage by air. It explains the liability of the carrier and measure of damages under the common law and the conventions. The Warsaw Convention and Montreal Convention (and the various versions of each) are explained, an explanation of how to work out which convention applies is provided and limitation of liability, jurisdiction and time bars under the conventions are also discussed. The Practice Note also provides an introduction to cargo documentation requirements and liability for loss, damage or delay to cargo.
This Practice Note provides a summary of the law relating to the carriage of goods by rail as provided for in the Uniform Rules Concerning the Contract of International Carriage of Goods by Rail (CIM). It explains the scope of application of CIM, the contract of carriage under CIM, how liability is apportioned under CIM, time bars and jurisdiction.
This Practice Note considers the regimes covering carriage of goods by road both in the UK with no international element and also overseas where there is an element of international carriage of goods under the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR Convention). It explains the liability of the carrier and measure of damages at common law, and the interplay with widely used hauliers’ standard terms. The CMR convention is explained, an explanation of multimodal transport is provided and limitation of liability, jurisdiction and time bars under the CMR Convention are also discussed. The Practice Note also provides an introduction to the consignment note, liability for loss or delay in transit and the defences available to the carrier.
This Practice Note explains the law relating to charterparties in the context of an arrangement for the carriage of goods by sea. It explains the key features of voyage charters, time charters, bareboat charters and slot charters and the damages for breach of charter in relation to each type. It also considers issues of piracy, incorporation of charterparty terms into bills of lading, incorporation of charterparty terms into letters of indemnity, international regulation of carbon dioxide and GHG emissions and bribery within the context of charterparties.
This Practice Note explains the Hague-Visby Rules which are an international convention enacted into English law by the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 (CGSA 1971) whose purpose is to regulate some of the most important rights and obligations under bills of lading for carriage of goods by sea. The Practice Note covers the scope of the Hague-Visby Rules, the carrier’s responsibilities under them, the carrier’s limitations of liability and immunities available under the Hague-Visby Rules and the relevant time bars.
This Practice Note describes the purpose and functions of sea carriage documents with reference to the delivery of cargo, in particular it examines bills of lading and sea waybills. It considers how bills of lading may either be charterers’ bills or owner’s bills, and how they act as evidence for a contract of carriage or as security for finance.
This Practice Note outlines some classes of documents performing the functions of both a document of title and a transport document under which goods are carried. Documents under which goods are carried, and those proving title to goods, are essential to the smooth running of international trade. By far the most important such document in international trade is the bill of lading.
This Practice Note provides an introduction to two types of cargo carrier, common carriers and private carriers, and explains the key aspects of their respective liabilities under their contractual relationships. The Practice Note concerns the carriage of goods only, and not the carriage of passengers.
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