The following Value Added Tax guidance note Produced by Tolley provides comprehensive and up to date tax information covering:
IP COMPLETION DAY: 11pm (GMT) on 31 December 2020 marked the end of the Brexit transition / implementation period entered into following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. At this point in time, key transitional arrangements came to an end and significant changes began to take effect across the UK’s VAT and customs regime. This document contains guidance on subjects potentially impacted by these changes. Before continuing your research, see the Brexit — overview guidance note.
This guidance note provides an overview of VAT BDR provisions. For an overview of the VAT implications on a customer who has not paid for a supply of goods and services, see the Bad debt relief ― repayment of VAT by the debtor guidance note.
For a video overview of the bad debt relief provisions, see the Bad debt relief video.
A business can recover VAT paid to HMRC on supplies of goods and services if the customer has not paid and the following conditions are satisfied:
the business must have charged VAT at either the standard or reduced rate
VAT must have been accounted for to HMRC (see below)
the VAT amount must have been written off in the VAT accounts and have been transferred to a special VAT bad debt account
the value of the supply must not exceed ‘open market value’
the debt must not have been transferred, sold or factored under a valid legal assignment
the debt must have remained unpaid for at least six months from the later of:
the date payment was due
the date of the supply
VATA 1994, s 36(1), (4)(a); SI 1995/2518, reg 165A(1); VBDR1500
Businesses should never issue a credit note in order to recover VAT incurred on a bad debt.
The business has the right of appeal if HMRC denies a claim for BDR. Please see the Appealing an HMRC decision ― outline guidance note for more information.
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