Adam Cygan

Professor Adam Cygan is Professor of European Union Law at the University of Leicester. His research focuses on institutional and constitutional governance within the Internal Market with a particular emphasis upon the legislative process. Professor Cygan has published extensively on the role of national parliaments in EU decision-making and his research challenges core assumptions within EU integration concerning the constitutional principles of accountability and democracy. In particular, his research has examined the contribution made by parliamentary committees to improving accountability within EU governance. Professor Cygan also has also published extensively on governance issues surrounding the operation of the Internal Market including access to healthcare and free movement of persons. Professor Cygan has significant experience of delivering elite-level consultancy and training to a variety of target groups including members of the judiciary, civil servants, policy makers and legislators. He has worked on a diverse range of projects developing institutional capacity and instructing on best practice for civil servants and parliamentarians. This includes recent EU Commission projects in Albania and Azerbaijan as well as projects funded by the UK Foreign Office in Egypt and Libya which involved the establishment of oversight and scrutiny committees in countries seeking democratic transition. Professor Cygan has key communication, organisational and analytical skills that are required for provision of expertise and consultancy as well as extensive experience of producing training manuals and organising and delivering face to face training.
Contributed to


Brexit—alternative UK trade models [Archived]
Practice notes

ARCHIVED: This Practice Note has been archived and is not maintained. This Practice Note considers some of the possible arrangements for trading with EU Member States post-Brexit, with reference to key trade models and existing economic and trading relationships which have been established between the EU and non-EU countries.

Brexit—exiting the EU under Article 50 [Archived]
Practice notes

ARCHIVED: This Practice Note explains the operation of the EU withdrawal process under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and identifies some of the key issues and consequences arising in the context of the UK becoming the first Member State to withdraw its membership of the EU.

EU external competence
Practice notes

This Practice Note outlines the key external competences of the EU and how they are implemented. The Practice Note also considers the role of the Court of Justice in the field of external competences and especially in connection with determining whether international agreements have direct effect. Finally, the Practice Note summarises the key points of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) which remains an important and developing part of the EU’s external competence.

Head of State and Parliament
Practice notes

Under the constitutional monarchy, the monarch plays a key role which has developed over time. This Practice Note examines the operation of conventions and royal prerogatives, the issue of confidentiality and the role of the monarch in opening and dissolution of Parliament, the process of Royal Assent on Bills from the legislature and succession.

House of Lords
Practice notes

This Practice Note concerns the House of Lords in its existing form as part of the legislature, and not in its former capacity as also part of the judicial system. The House of Lords continues to play a vital role in reviewing and amending legislation.

Implications of infringement of EU law
Practice notes

This Practice Note outlines the implications of an infringement of EU law for a member state and the various mechanisms, whether in the Court of Justice or in national courts through which an infringement may be remedied. Once infringement of individual rights has been established, it will be necessary for the member state to stop the infringement, remedy the cause of the breach and, if appropriate, compensation will be paid to any individual whose Treaty rights have been infringed.

Infringement proceedings against EU Member States
Practice notes

This Practice Note outlines the key steps in the procedure involved for the European Commission to bring infringement action against an EU Member State under Article 258 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). It also examines the operation of Article 260 TFEU, and considers the potential defences open to a Member State in infringement proceedings.

Interpretation of EU Legislation
Practice notes

This Practice Note considers the interpretation of legislation by the Court of Justice and by national courts and how this seeks to secure the effective application of EU law. It considers the obligations of the Court of Justice when interpreting EU legislative acts and how national courts use the interpretative technique of indirect effect in order to give effect to EU law within the domestic legal order.

Practice notes

All judges and magistrates are appointed by and derive their authority from the Crown so that the judicial branch operates independently of the executive and legislature. This Practice Note explores the principles of judicial independence, impartiality and integrity, the appointment and disciplining of judges and their written judgments.

Ministerial powers to implement EU directives [Archived]
Practice notes

ARCHIVED: This Practice Note has been archived and is not maintained. This Practice Note considers the operation of section 2(2) of the European Communities Act 1972 and the use of Statutory Instruments to implement EU legislation within the UK during its membership of the EU.

Obligation to transpose and process EU Directives
Practice notes

This Practice Note outlines the key obligations for EU Member States when transposing EU Directives and the consequences for Member States should they fail to do so correctly.

Parliamentary scrutiny of EU legislation [Archived]
Practice notes

ARCHIVED: This Practice Note has been archived and is not maintained. This Practice Note aims to outline the practice, procedures and objectives of parliamentary scrutiny of EU legislation and policy within both Houses of Parliament.

Royal Charters
Practice notes

Royal Charters grant corporate personality to professional or charitable bodies, by the monarch. This Practice Note explores the process of establishing and surrendering of Royal Charters and restrictions, including in relation to judicial review.

The supremacy of EU law
Practice notes

This Practice Note explains the principle of supremacy and how it has contributed to EU integration. The Practice Note also outlines how the principle of supremacy is guaranteed in the UK through the European Communities Act 1972 (ECA 1972) and the extent to which this has impacted upon the principle of parliamentary sovereignty.

UK opt-outs in the area of freedom, security and justice [Archived]
Practice notes

ARCHIVED: This Practice Note has been archived and is not maintained. This Practice Note outlines the pre-Brexit arrangements for UK participation in the area of freedom security and justice and how the UK chose to exercise the prerogatives which were available under TFEU, Protocol 36 to participate in certain provisions. It also outlines the operation of the transitional provisions which ended on 30 November 2014 and how the UK reacted to the end of the transitional provisions and the procedure used by the UK to formally opt in to 35 measures.

Explanatory memorandum (EU legislative proposals)

An explanatory memorandum accompanies every EU legislative proposal laid before the UK Parliament and describes the general impact of the EU Proposal including its financial, legal and policy implications and whether the measure is, in the government’s view, compatible with the principle of subsidiarity in TEU, art 5. This precedent provides a framework for this document.

Subsidiarity statement

Each legislative proposal from the EU Commission contains within the Impact Assessment a Subsidiarity Statement explaining the choice of Treaty base and how the proposed legislation complies with the principle of subsidiarity. This Precedent provides a framework for the document.

Transposition table

This precedent guides legislation drafters in transposing EU Directives into UK legislation, providing a template for planning provision by provision the relationship between the EU Directive and UK legislation. They are used by Cabinet Committees for notification and clearance and form the basis of transposition notes attached to consultation and legislation.

Practice areas


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