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Direct effect of EU lawWhat is direct effect of EU law?The doctrine of direct effect is a fundamental principle of EU law developed by the Court of Justice of the European Union in Van Gend en Loos. It is a mechanism through which individuals can enforce rights in Member States’ courts, based on EU
Liquidated damages in construction contractsThis Practice Note explains what liquidated and ascertained damages (LADs/LDs) are and their purpose in a building contract. It considers the difference between liquidated damages and general (or unliquidated) damages and looks at the enforceability of
ECHR, art 5(4)—rights and dutiesThe scope of article 5(4) Article 5(4) of the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) provides that: 'Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the lawfulness of his detention shall be decided
Negligence—key elements to establish a negligence claimNegligence—what are the key ingredients to establish a claim in negligence?For liability in negligence to be founded, four key ingredients must be present:•duty of care•breach of that duty•damage (which is caused by the breach)•foreseeability of
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