A voluntary winding up is deemed to commence at the time of the passing of the resolution for voluntary winding up.
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Pension commencement lump sums (PCLSs)When a member of a pension scheme becomes entitled to receive their scheme benefits, they can usually take part as a tax-free lump sum. HMRC calls this a ‘pension commencement lump sum’ (PCLS). Taking a lump sum is usually at the option of the member who will
Proprietary estoppelThis Practice Note considers proprietary estoppel from a generic standpoint.For industry specific guidance on proprietary estoppel, see Practice Notes:•Estoppel and property law•Mortgages by estoppelProprietary estoppel—what is it?Unlike the other forms of estoppel (see Practice
Strict liabilityStrict liabilityWhen an offence does not require proof of a mental element it is an offence of strict liability. There are some common law offences of strict liability (eg public nuisance, outraging public decency and contempt) most though are statutory, arising often under
Negligence—when is the duty of care breached?Having established that a duty of care exists (see Practice Note: Negligence—when does a duty of care arise?), it is then necessary to consider whether or not there has been a breach of that duty. This will depend on a number of factors outlined below and
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