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The principle of transferred maliceIf a person has a malicious intent towards X and, in carrying out that intent, injures Y, he is guilty of an offence. So, if D shoots at A with intent to kill him but kills B by mistake it is murder; the mistake as to the identity of the victim is irrelevant as D
An intention to create legal relations is requiredThere are various situations in which a court will hold that an agreement is not binding because, though supported by consideration, it was made without any intention of creating legal relations (see, eg, Blue v Ashley).Did the parties intend to
Source of the doctrine of the separation of powersThe origins of the doctrine are often traced to John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government (1689), in which he identified the 'executive' and 'legislative' powers as needing to be separate.‘… it may be too great a temptation to human frailty, apt to
What is a res judicata?A res judicata is a decision given by a judge or tribunal with jurisdiction over the cause of action and the parties, which disposes, with finality, of a matter decided so that it cannot be re-litigated by those bound by the judgment, except on appeal.Final judgments by
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