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Qualified one-way costs shifting (QOCS)What is QOCS?Qualified one-way costs shifting (QOCS) was introduced on 1 April 2013 as part of the Jackson costs reforms following the removal of a claimant’s right to recover additional liabilities from the defendant, ie success fees and after the event (ATE)
Removal of a directorThis note should be read in conjunction with Practice Note: Appointment, retirement and resignation of a director.For an illustration of the steps that must be taken to remove a director, see Removal of a director—flowchart.Removal from officeResolution to remove a directorA
Indirect effect of EU lawWhat is indirect effect of EU law?The doctrine of indirect effect, or consistent interpretation, is a duty that national courts have, as part of the Member State responsible for fulfilment of EU obligations, to interpret national law in light of EU law, especially with
Private nuisancePrivate nuisance is an unlawful interference with a person's use or enjoyment of land or some right over or in connection with it. Interference must be unreasonable, and may be caused, eg by water, smoke, smell, fumes, gas, noise, heat or vibrations. Where the defendant has not
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