The following Practice Compliance Q&A provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
Confidential information is information that is (i) confidential in nature, and (ii) disclosed in circumstances that give rise to a duty of confidentiality. In many cases it will be obvious that information is confidential, eg a client database or a business strategy. Sometimes it won't be obvious, eg oral communications at a work social event or informal email communications can constitute confidential information. Therefore, it is vital to:
have a system in place to protect confidential information, and
ensure employees are aware of the risks and discouraged from using information unlawfully
Many employment contracts will include provisions on confidential information. However, one size might not fit all and it is a good idea to ensure your employment contracts are suitable for different categories of employee. It is important to review confidentiality provisions regularly as employees take on different roles, new technologies emerge and the legislative framework changes.
Confidential information needs to be recorded and shared cautiously; a single employee holding all the confidential information in their head is a recipe for disaster. The smaller the pool of employees with access to confidential information the lesser the risk of disclosure, so for highly sensitive information it pays to keep that pool as small as possible. However, protection of confidentiality needs to be balanced with
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Voluntary manslaughterVoluntary manslaughter consists of those killings which would be murder (because the accused has the relevant mental element for murder) but which are reduced to manslaughter because of one of the three special defences (loss of control, diminished responsibility or suicide
Statutory declaration of solvencyA company enters voluntary liquidation when the members of the company vote to do so by a special resolution. For more information, see Practice Note: What is a members' voluntary liquidation (MVL) and where/when is it typically used?Before the members can vote on a
Codicils may be used for making any alteration in a Will such as to alter the executors or make changes in legacies, whether by addition or deletion but that is by no means their only use. As a general rule, substantial changes are best achieved by means of a new Will and codicils are more
For guidance on the basic features of the doctrine of estoppel and the different classifications it has been subject to, see Practice Note: Estoppel—what, when and how to plead and related content.Promissory estoppel—what is it?Where A has, by words or conduct, made to B a clear and unequivocal
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