The following Property Disputes practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
Coronavirus (COVID-19): During the current pandemic, legislation and changes to practice and procedure in the courts and tribunals have been introduced, which affect the following:
proceedings for possession
forfeiture of business leases on the grounds of non-payment of rent
a landlord's right to exercise Commercial Rent Arrears Recovery (CRAR) and enforcement agents taking control of goods
service of various notices to recover possession of residential properties
practice and procedure in the First-tier Tribunal (Property Chamber) and Upper Tribunal (Lands Chamber)
insolvency legislation of both a permanent and temporary nature
For further information and guidance, see: Coronavirus (COVID-19)—implications for property.
This Practice Note covers what trespass to land is, including trespass in relation to minerals and airspace, trespass by a tenant after expiry of a lease, continuing trespass, who can bring a claim, the necessary elements for actual possession and the possible defences to a claim of trespass.
Trespass is the unlawful presence of a person on land or buildings in the possession of another, including:
wrongfully setting foot on or riding or driving over it
taking possession of it or expelling the person in possession
unlawfully remaining after authority expires (eg a former tenant remaining in possession against the will of the owner is, apart from statutory protection, a trespasser from the date of determination of the tenancy. However, a tenant holding over is
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This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
When is quantum meruit and quantum valebat relevant?Claims in quantum meruit (value of services) and quantum valebat (value of goods) arise in diverse situations ranging from where contractual terms are silent on issues of payment to where there is no contract at all (Serck v Drake & Scull).General
Commercial Property Standard Enquiries (CPSEs) are industry standard pre-contract enquiries used in commercial property transactions. CPSEs are endorsed by the British Property Federation and are free to use. The CPSEs include specific environmental enquiries at enquiry 15 and there are several
Having established that a duty of care exists (see Practice Note: Negligence—when does a duty of care arise?), it is then necessary to consider whether or not there has been a breach of that duty. This will depend on a number of factors outlined below and considered against the general background of
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