The following Energy practice note Produced in partnership with Herbert Smith Freehills provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
Offshore Transmission Owners (OFTOs) are the owners of offshore transmission assets which connect offshore wind farms to the onshore electricity network. The transmission assets comprise everything between the offshore point of connection with the generating wind farm assets and the onshore point of connection with the onshore network (including all cables and associated connection equipment). The assets typically include any offshore platforms and associated substations, export cables, the onshore substation and onshore cables to connect to the Distribution Network Operator substation.
For more information on the different entities in the Great Britain (GB) onshore and offshore transmission market, and where they fit into the wider GB electricity market, see Practice Note: The Great Britain electricity market—an introduction.
In 2011, the EU Third Energy Package was implemented in the UK through the Electricity and Gas (Internal Markets) Regulations 2011 (2011 Regulations), SI 2011/2704 and introduced the requirement of ‘ownership unbundling’, including the obligation that the ownership and operation of transmission systems be separated from gas and electricity generation, production and supply activities. For more information on this unbundling regime, see Practice Note: The EU third energy package—unbundling.
In June 2009, new regulatory arrangements came into force for transitional offshore transmission projects which were already under construction. Full commencement of the offshore transmission regime occurred in June 2014 so that transmitting
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When defendants are guilty, they have a choice to plead guilty or to put the prosecution to proof. When they plead guilty they may benefit from a reduction in their sentence as a result, see Practice Note: Credit for guilty plea. However, the Sentencing Council's overarching guidelines on reduction
What is a res judicata?A res judicata is a decision given by a judge or tribunal with jurisdiction over the cause of action and the parties, which disposes, with finality, of a matter decided so that it cannot be re-litigated by those bound by the judgment, except on appeal.Final judgments by
Who is a fiduciary?There is no comprehensive list of the relationships which give rise to the existence of fiduciary duties under common law. Some relationships are automatically fiduciary, eg those between trustee and beneficiary, solicitor and client, principal and agent, business partner and
Brexit: The UK's departure from the EU on exit day ie Friday 31 January 2020 has implications for practitioners dealing with provisions in the CPR relevant to cross border matters, including CPR 5.4C (discussed below). For guidance on the impact of Brexit on the CPR, see Cross border
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