BREXIT: The UK is leaving the EU on Exit Day (as defined in the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018). This has an impact on this Practice Note. For guidance, see Practice Note: Brexit—impact on finance transactions—Key issues for derivatives transactions and Brexit—impact on finance transactions—Derivatives and debt capital markets transactions—key SIs.
EMIR REFIT and EMIR 2.2: EMIR REFIT (Regulation (EU) 2019/834 amending Regulation (EU) 648/2012 (EMIR)) as regards the clearing obligation, the suspension of the clearing obligation, the reporting requirements, the risk-mitigation techniques for over the counter (OTC) derivative contracts not cleared by a central counterparty (CCP), the registration and supervision of trade repositories (TRs) and the requirements for TRs was published in the Official Journal of the EU on 28 May 2019 and has effect from 17 June 2019, and on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament, the Council of the EU and the Commission reached a political agreement on EMIR 2.2 (the proposed Regulation amending EMIR as regards the procedures and authorities involved for the authorisation of CCPs and requirements for the recognition of third-country CCPs). For a summary of the changes made to EMIR by EMIR REFIT and the currently proposed changes to be made to EMIR by EMIR 2.2, see Practice Note: EMIR REFIT and EMIR 2.2 roadmap. For discussion of the changes made to EMIR
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The principle of transferred maliceIf a person has a malicious intent towards X and, in carrying out that intent, injures Y, he is guilty of an offence. So, if D shoots at A with intent to kill him but kills B by mistake it is murder; the mistake as to the identity of the victim is irrelevant as D
This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
When restructuring is considered rather than formal insolvency proceedings (see Practice Note: Benefits of restructuring over formal proceedings) the company may want to ensure that relevant creditors quickly enter a standstill agreement to gain some breathing space to consider a restructuring
What is recklessness?In respect of some statutory offences and common law crimes the prosecution are required to prove a mental element of recklessness on the part of the defendant.Recklessness means unjustified risk taking on the part of the accused.Prior to the House of Lords decision in Re G
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