The following Environment practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
11 pm (GMT) on 31 December 2020 marked the end of the Brexit transition/implementation period entered into following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. At this point in time (referred to in UK law as ‘IP completion day’), key transitional arrangements came to an end and significant changes began to take effect across the UK’s legal regime.
Economic operators (whether manufacturer, importer or distributor) that placed fully manufactured products on the EEA or the UK market (either in Northern Ireland or Great Britain) before 1 January 2021, do not need to do anything new in respect of that product. These individual products can continue to circulate on the market until they reach their end user and do not need to comply with the changes that took effect from 1 January 2021. The relevant economic operator bears the burden of proof for demonstrating that the electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was placed on the market before 1 January 2021, such as through providing contracts, invoices and shipping documents.
Manufacturers are able to continue to use the CE marking until 31 December 2022 in most cases. From 1 January 2023, all EEE placed on the Great Britain market must be marked with the UKCA marking, with the exception of products that are qualifying Northern Ireland goods (see below). These deadlines
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Entrapment There is no defence of entrapment in English law but it is considered to be an abuse of the process of the court for state agents to lure a person into committing illegal acts and then seek to prosecute him for doing so. The House of Lords said that, although entrapment is not a
RobberyRobberyRobbery is a theft offence, involving dishonesty but elevated also by the intention to use force.Robbery can only be tried in the Crown Court on indictment and is categorised as a class 3 offence.Elements of the offence of robberyA person is guilty of robbery if:•they steal something,
Reserved judgmentsWhat is a reserved judgment?A court can reserve judgment by giving its decision at a later date in writing, after the trial or hearing (as opposed to an ex tempore judgment which is given by the judge orally straight after the hearing or trial). At the end of the hearing the judge
Negligence—when is the duty of care breached?Having established that a duty of care exists (see Practice Note: Negligence—when does a duty of care arise?), it is then necessary to consider whether or not there has been a breach of that duty. This will depend on a number of factors outlined below and
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