The following Corporate Crime practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
The Investigatory Powers Act 2016 (IPA 2016) provides the main legal framework governing the use of covert surveillance by public bodies. Previously, this framework had been governed largely, but not exclusively, by the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIPA 2000). While the provisions of RIPA 2000 relating to the interception and acquisition of communications data have been repealed and replaced by IPA 2016, the regimes relating to the use of direct surveillance, covert human intelligence sources (CHIS) and obtaining electronic data protected by encryption remain governed by RIPA 2000.
For information on the regime for the interception and acquisition of communications under IPA 2016, see Practice Notes:
The Investigatory Powers Act 2016—an introductory guide
Acquisition and disclosure of communications data under the Investigatory Powers Act 2016
Interception of communications under the Investigatory Powers Act 2016
Equipment interference under the Investigatory Powers Act 2016
Communications data retention
Scrutiny of intelligence gathering and the role of commissioners under the Investigatory Powers Act 2016
The provisions of RIPA 2000 relating to the interception of communications data have been repealed. The information below is provided for background information only.
The right to respect for private and family life is enshrined in Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), contained in the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA
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Statutory declaration of solvencyA company enters voluntary liquidation when the members of the company vote to do so by a special resolution. For more information, see Practice Note: What is a members' voluntary liquidation (MVL) and where/when is it typically used?Before the members can vote on a
The principles of the notarial act are that it is:•an act of the notary and not of the parties named in the document•a record of a fact, event or transaction•in the form of a document, notwithstanding the form of the underlying document, fact, event or transactionThe purpose of the notarial act is
An ad hoc arbitration is any arbitration in which the parties have not selected an institution to administer the arbitration. This offers parties flexibility as to the conduct of the arbitration, but less external support for the process. It can be quicker than institutional arbitration but not if
Background to the Single RulebookHistorically, the European Commission (Commission) favours using Directives (rather than Regulations) to set out its legislation in respect of the financial services sector. However, Directives, allowing Member States greater flexibility in how they implement
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