The following Public Law guidance note Produced in partnership with Carl Gardner of Head of Legal provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
Most Bills are Public Bills, aimed at a change the law as it applies to everyone. Most Public Bills are government Bills, introduced by ministers either as part of their planned legislative programme, or in response to events.
A Public Bill introduced by an MP or a Member of the House of Lords who is not a government minister is called a Private Member’s Bill. Relatively few Private Member's Bills become law. It’s important to keep Private Member's Bills distinct from Private Bills, discussed briefly below.
Some Bills aim at changing the law in a way that only affects particular individuals or organisations, rather than changing the general law affecting everyone. These are Private Bills. Each year a number of those are promoted in Parliament by outside organisations. For example, currently Transport for London (TfL) is promoting the Transport for London Bill, aimed at giving TfL further financial and management powers. Private Bills are subject to special procedures.
A few Bills resemble both Public and Private Bills in that they would both affect the general law, but have special legal effects on particular bodies. These are called Hybrid Bills. A current example of a Hybrid Bill is the High Speed Rail (London—West Midlands) Bill, which would confer powers necessary to build phase 1 of the proposed High Speed 2 (HS2) scheme from London Euston to Birmingham. Hybrid Bills are also subject to special procedures.
A typical government backed Bill can be introduced in either House, whereupon it goes through a number of defined stages in each House.
Major and controversial government Bills are generally introduced in
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