Norwich Pharmacal orders (NPOs)
Norwich Pharmacal orders (NPOs)

The following Dispute Resolution guidance note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:

  • Norwich Pharmacal orders (NPOs)
  • What is a Norwich Pharmacal order?
  • When would I use a Norwich Pharmacal order?
  • Requirements to be met—general
  • Threshold condition—‘wrong’ or ‘wrongdoing’
  • Threshold condition—disclosure is necessary to pursue redress
  • Threshold condition—’mixed up in’ and mere witness rule
  • Threshold condition—necessary and proportionate response
  • Court’s discretion
  • Statutory provisions and NPOs
  • more

This Practice Note explains what Norwich Pharmacal Orders (NPOs) are and when they can be used. In particular, it examines the requirements which need to be met ie a ‘wrong’ must have been carried out, or ‘arguably carried out’ by an ultimate wrongdoer, the applicant must be genuinely intending to seek redress for the arguable wrongs, the person against whom the order is sought must be involved in the wrongdoing, they cannot be a mere witness, a Norwich Pharmacal order must be a necessary and proportionate response in all the circumstances and finally it must be appropriate for the court to exercise its discretion.

The Practice Note also considers the costs associated with NPOs, the consequences of non-compliance, the use of information obtained under an NPO in other proceedings and Norwich Pharmacal relief in relation to disclosure required for foreign proceedings. The Practice Note also highlights additional measures or alternatives such as relief under Bankers Trust orders and CPR 31. Finally it looks at discharging or setting aside an NPO.

For information about making an application for an NPO, see Practice Note: Norwich Pharmacal orders—procedure for application.

In this Practice Note the following terms are used:

  1. applicant/claimant—the person seeking redress eg the claimant in intended proceedings or a person seeking injunctive relief against a wrong doer

  2. respondent—a person, who is not the wrongdoer,