Kyoto Protocol 1997—snapshot
Kyoto Protocol 1997—snapshot

The following Environment practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:

  • Kyoto Protocol 1997—snapshot
  • Brexit impact
  • The Kyoto Protocol
  • Emission reduction targets
  • How are reductions achieved?
  • Emissions trading
  • The clean development mechanism (CDM)
  • Joint implementation (JI)
  • The future of JI and CDM
  • Institutional framework
  • More...

TitleKyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto Protocol)
Parties192
See: Ratification status for details
LocationKyoto, Japan
AdoptedCOP 3 on 11 December 1997
Came into force16 February 2005
SubjectClimate change

Brexit impact

11 pm (GMT) on 31 December 2020 marks the end of the Brexit transition/implementation period entered into following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. At this point in time (referred to in UK law as ‘IP completion day’), key transitional arrangements come to an end and significant changes begin to take effect across the UK’s legal regime. Any changes relevant to this content will be set out below. For further guidance, see Practice Note: Brexit—impact on environmental law and News Analysis: Brexit Bulletin—key updates, research tips and resources.

The Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol commits developed economies in Annex I to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Annex I parties) to detailed reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Emission reductions apply to the following GHGs:

  1. carbon dioxide (CO2)

  2. methane

  3. nitrous oxide

  4. hydrofluorocarbons

  5. perfluorocarbons

  6. sulphur hexafluoride

The UNFCCC aims to stabilise GHG emissions at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. UNFCCC signatories agreed to principles that limit GHG emissions. The Kyoto Protocol implements those principles. For more information on the UNFCCC, see Practice Note: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992—snapshot.

The Kyoto

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