The following Commercial practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
Where a contract is made by two or more parties it may contain a promise or obligation made by two or more of those parties. Any such promise may be:
joint and several
Whether an undertaking is joint, several, or joint and several in contract is a question of construction and is dependent on the intention of the parties as evidenced in the contract. For example, in Rhinegold Publishing v Apex Business Development, statutory demands were served on Rhinegold Ltd, and a related company, Tannhauser Ltd, in the sums of approximately £22,000 and £31,000 respectively. A settlement agreement was subsequently entered into under which the parties agreed to pay the amounts due, but Tannhauser failed to fully do so. Although the settlement agreement was silent on the question of liability, the High Court held that on a proper construction of the agreement, the parties were jointly and severally liable. Rhinegold was therefore required to pay the outstanding sums owed by Tannhauser.
Joint liability arises where two or more persons jointly promise to do the same thing. For instance where B and C jointly promise to pay £100 to A:
there is only one obligation, namely a single payment of £100
each of B and C is liable for the performance of the whole promise,
Free trials are only available to individuals based in the UK
Complete all the fields above to proceed to the next step.
**Trials are provided to all LexisPSL and LexisLibrary content, excluding Practice Compliance, Practice Management and Risk and Compliance, subscription packages are tailored to your specific needs. To discuss trialling these LexisPSL services please email customer service via our online form. Free trials are only available to individuals based in the UK. We may terminate this trial at any time or decide not to give a trial, for any reason. Trial includes one question to LexisAsk during the length of the trial.
To view the latest version of this document and thousands of others like it, sign-in to LexisPSL or register for a free trial.
Existing user? Sign-in
Take a free trial
Take a free trial
Liquidated damages in construction contractsThis Practice Note explains what liquidated and ascertained damages (LADs/LDs) are and their purpose in a building contract. It considers the difference between liquidated damages and general (or unliquidated) damages and looks at the enforceability of
Commercial Property Standard EnquiriesThe Commercial Property Standard Enquiries (CPSE) have become the industry standard pre-contract enquiries for commercial property transactions:•CPSE.1 (version 3.8) General pre-contract enquiries for all commercial property transactions•CPSE.2 (version 3.4)
Lexcel—assessmentLexcel is the Law Society's practice management standard. It is not compulsory although Lexcel accreditation can be helpful for firms wishing to be accredited under the Conveyancing Quality Scheme or the Legal Service Board's Specialist Quality Mark. This Practice Note tells you
Proprietary estoppelThis Practice Note considers proprietary estoppel from a generic standpoint.For industry specific guidance on proprietary estoppel, see Practice Notes:•Estoppel and property law•Mortgages by estoppelProprietary estoppel—what is it?Unlike the other forms of estoppel (see Practice
0330 161 1234