The following Environment practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
Reviewed by Professor Richard Macrory.
Regulatory Enforcement and Sanctions Act 2008 (RESA 2008) enables regulators to be given powers to deal with offences using six new civil sanctions, instead of prosecuting. In 2010, powers were given to the Environment Agency (EA) and Natural England (NE) for a number of environmental offences. In 2015, the scope of civil sanctions was extended when the EA was given power to accept enforcement undertakings in respect of environmental permitting offences.
The Environmental Civil Sanctions (England) Order 2010, SI 2010/1157 applies in England and the Environmental Civil Sanctions (Wales) Order 2010, SI 2010/1821 applies in Wales. Schedule 5 of both regulations specifies which sanctions are available for each offence.
The EA began using its powers on 4 January 2011. NE started using its powers from 3 January 2012. From 1 April 2013, Natural Resources Wales (NRW) has been responsible for enforcing environmental civil sanctions in Wales.
Variable monetary penalties may be used instead of criminal sanctions for offences where imposing a financial penalty may change offender behaviour and deter others and/or lead to faster resolution. A variable monetary penalty does not carry the stigma of a criminal conviction. It may also provide a saving for the recipient in avoiding the need to pay for representation, and enable the recipient to offer a third party undertaking to make restitution to adversely affected third
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Tipping off and prejudicing an investigationIt would undermine the benefit to the authorities if, a suspicious activity report (SAR) having been made, the alleged offender were to be made aware of the interest in their activities so that they could take steps to cover up their misdeeds or disappear.
On the disposition of a property (whether by way of conveyance, transfer or charge), the party making the disposition will normally provide a title guarantee which implies standard form covenants for title. A landlord may give a title guarantee when granting a lease, but this is rare in practice.
This Practice Note examines:•why negative pledge clauses are used in commercial transactions •the consequences of breaching negative pledge provisions•how negative pledges are viewed in the context of security and quasi-security, and•key considerations when drafting a negative pledge clauseWhere
Definition of automatismAn act is done in a state of automatism if it is done by the body without control by the mind, (eg it is a spasm or a reflex), or if it is done by a person who is not conscious of what they are doing. The act may be described as involuntary, but will not be regarded as such
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