The following Energy practice note Produced in partnership with Sandy Abrahams of Lux Nova Partners provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
In the UK, District Heating Networks (DHN) provide heating to multiple customers within a building (sometimes referred to as communal heating) or a number of buildings (referred to as district heating) using a common heat generation source(s) and a common heat distribution network of pipes and equipment. The heat is provided in the form of hot water (rarely this is steam but increasingly systems are moving towards circulating lower temperature, ‘ambient’ warmth). Typically, where a DHN spans multiple buildings, heat exchangers are used to hydraulically separate a central system from local, building systems, allowing different pressures and rates of circulation and easier control of temperatures (and ownership) in local buildings.
The regulatory regime applicable to DHN is currently limited, notwithstanding that DHN schemes tend to be physical and commercial monopolies in relation to the heat that they provide, with customers rarely having any choice in relation to their district heating provider. Gradually, various mechanisms for governance are being introduced by those putting together such schemes, including through the voluntary Heat Trust scheme. In addition, the first heat specific regulation came in as a result of EU regulation. More recently however, the Competition Markets Authority (CMA) investigation (see further below) is paving the way to further regulation in England and Wales, with the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) now working on
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Private nuisancePrivate nuisance is an unlawful interference with a person's use or enjoyment of land or some right over or in connection with it. Interference must be unreasonable, and may be caused, eg by water, smoke, smell, fumes, gas, noise, heat or vibrations. Where the defendant has not
Community order requirementsCommunity order requirements are set out in the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (CJA 2003), as amended by the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 (LASPO 2012) and the Offender Rehabilitation Act 2014 (ORA 2014). Criminal Justice Act 2003, s 152(2)
Involuntary manslaughter—introductionManslaughter can be classified as either voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary manslaughter consists of those killings which would be murder (because the accused has the relevant mental element—hence the label voluntary manslaughter) but which are reduced to
The right to notice means a right for the employee to remain in employment for the period of notice, not simply to be paid for it. An employer will therefore often include in the contract an express right to make a payment in lieu of notice ('PILON') as an alternative to giving notice, to ensure
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