The following Competition practice note Produced in partnership with Thommessen provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a trade organisation established in 1960 by Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden, UK and Austria. The EFTA was created to function as an intergovernmental organisation for the promotion of free trade and economic integration between its Convention States, as an alternative to the newly established European Economic Community (EEC), which subsequently developed into the European Community (EC) and then the European Union (EU).
Finland joined in 1961, Iceland in 1970 and Liechtenstein in 1991. By that time Denmark, Portugal and the UK had left the EFTA to join the EEC.
In 1989, the Member States of the EC and EFTA agreed to negotiate a free trade agreement establishing 'a single market' encompassing the EC (now EU) and EFTA States. The European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement entered into force on 1 January 1994. At that time, the EFTA consisted of Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. Switzerland did not sign the EEA Agreement, and Austria, Finland and Sweden later left EFTA to join the EU. Today the 32 contracting parties to the EEA Agreement comprise all 28 EU Member States, the EU itself and the three EFTA Countries Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. When referring to the 'EFTA Member States' below, this includes Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, but not Switzerland.
The EEA Agreement extends the EU single market to Iceland,
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Tipping off and prejudicing an investigationIt would undermine the benefit to the authorities if, a suspicious activity report (SAR) having been made, the alleged offender were to be made aware of the interest in their activities so that they could take steps to cover up their misdeeds or disappear.
This Practice Note provides guidance on the interpretation and application of the relevant provisions of the CPR. Depending on the court in which your matter is proceeding, you may also need to be mindful of additional provisions—see further below.You should also consider if the proceedings will be
When is quantum meruit and quantum valebat relevant?Claims in quantum meruit (value of services) and quantum valebat (value of goods) arise in diverse situations ranging from where contractual terms are silent on issues of payment to where there is no contract at all (Serck v Drake & Scull).General
This Practice Note identifies the main torts (bar negligence and nuisance, which are covered elsewhere in our related content) and their key characteristics. Specifically:•trespass to land•trespass to the person•privacy/defamation•liability for animals•employers' liability•product
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