The following Banking & Finance practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:
minimum net worth test
leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)
current ratio (or acid test ratio)
interest cover ratio, and
loan to value ratio
a typical starting point for each of those financial covenants
some items which could be included or excluded from definitions within financial covenants, and
some key accounting concepts which are used in financial covenants including earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA), current assets and current liabilities
Note that this Practice Note does not provide a detailed explanation of financial covenants on specialist transactions. However, the last section links out to further information on using financial covenants in various specialist transactions.
Where appropriate, this Practice Note highlights relevant provisions in the Loan Market Association (LMA) senior multicurrency term and revolving facilities agreement for leveraged acquisition finance transactions (the LMA leveraged facilities agreement) (available to LMA members on the LMA website).
The Association of Corporate Treasurers (ACT) Borrower’s Guide to the LMA’s Investment Grade Agreements (2017) and the Borrower’s Guide to the LMA Facilities Agreement for Leveraged Transactions (2008) (ACT Guides) both contain useful guidance on financial covenants in LMA documentation. Registration on the ACT website is necessary to access the ACT Guides. The LMA also has a guide to its financial
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This Practice Note considers the different categories of contractual damages that may be available for financial loss (pecuniary loss), ie expectation-based damages, reliance-based damages and gains-based damages.For guidance on contractual damages generally, see Practice Note: Contractual
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Brexit: The UK's departure from the EU on exit day ie Friday 31 January 2020 has implications for practitioners dealing with provisions in the CPR relevant to cross border matters, including CPR 5.4C (discussed below). For guidance on the impact of Brexit on the CPR, see Cross border
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