The following Banking & Finance practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:
minimum net worth test
leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)
current ratio (or acid test ratio)
interest cover ratio, and
loan to value ratio
a typical starting point for each of those financial covenants
some items which could be included or excluded from definitions within financial covenants, and
some key accounting concepts which are used in financial covenants including earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA), current assets and current liabilities
Note that this Practice Note does not provide a detailed explanation of financial covenants on specialist transactions. However, the last section links out to further information on using financial covenants in various specialist transactions.
Where appropriate, this Practice Note highlights relevant provisions in the Loan Market Association (LMA) senior multicurrency term and revolving facilities agreement for leveraged acquisition finance transactions (the LMA leveraged facilities agreement) (available to LMA members on the LMA website).
The Association of Corporate Treasurers (ACT) Borrower’s Guide to the LMA’s Investment Grade Agreements (2017) and the Borrower’s Guide to the LMA Facilities Agreement for Leveraged Transactions (2008) (ACT Guides) both contain useful guidance on financial covenants in LMA documentation. Registration on the ACT website is necessary to access the ACT Guides. The LMA also has a guide to its financial
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This Practice Note considers the law governing the procedural law of arbitration proceedings (the curial law or lex arbitri) and how it is determined under the law of England and Wales (England and English are used as convenient shorthand).The procedural law of the arbitral proceedingsThe procedural
This Practice Note examines:•why negative pledge clauses are used in commercial transactions •the consequences of breaching negative pledge provisions•how negative pledges are viewed in the context of security and quasi-security, and•key considerations when drafting a negative pledge clauseWhere
Who is a fiduciary?There is no comprehensive list of the relationships which give rise to the existence of fiduciary duties under common law. Some relationships are automatically fiduciary, eg those between trustee and beneficiary, solicitor and client, principal and agent, business partner and
The Standard Conditions of Sale (SCS), currently in their 5th edition (2018 revision), are a set of standard conditions which are commonly incorporated into contracts for the sale of residential property. The Standard Commercial Property Conditions (Third Edition—2018 Revision) (SCPC) are used for
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