Character merchandising—IP and competition law issues
Produced in partnership with Pat Treacy of Bristows and Aimee Brookes of Bristows
Character merchandising—IP and competition law issues

The following IP practice note produced in partnership with Pat Treacy of Bristows and Aimee Brookes of Bristows provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:

  • Character merchandising—IP and competition law issues
  • The relevant IP rights
  • Copyright
  • Trade marks
  • The Merchandising Agreement
  • Applicable competition law
  • Article 101
  • Insufficient effect on trade
  • Insufficient effect on competition
  • Issues under Article 101
  • More...

Character merchandising is the practice of licensing the name or likeness of a (usually fictitious) character for use in the marketing of goods or services. In theory, that character association makes the goods or services more attractive to the market. For the licensor, as well as the royalty fee generated, the licensing of such character rights can be invaluable for marketing and sponsorship.

The relevant IP rights

Copyright

Under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, a statutory copyright right will arise in original artistic works as soon as they are created. If a character itself is an artistic work, it is possible for it to be protected separately from the underlying work.

According to English case law, a character’s name cannot be protected by copyright as a literary work. In the case of Exxon v Exxon, the judge described a literary work as something that is intended to afford either information or instruction, or pleasure in the form of literary enjoyment, and found that the name ‘Exxon’ was not intended to do these things (see also the case of Lyngstad v Anabas Products [1977] FSR 62 (not reported by LexisNexis®), in which the judge held that the name ‘ABBA’ did not amount to a literary work). However, since the court determined in NLA v Meltwater that headlines are capable of being independent literary works, there has been some

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