The following Environment practice note Produced in partnership with Navraj Singh Ghaleigh of Senior Lecturer in Climate Law, University of Edinburgh provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
As of exit day (31 January 2020), the UK is no longer an EU Member State. However, in accordance with the Withdrawal Agreement, the UK has entered an implementation period, during which it continues to be subject to EU law. This has an impact on this content. For further guidance, see Practice Note: Brexit—impact on environmental law and News Analysis: Brexit Bulletin—key updates, research tips and resources.
For further information on the impact of Brexit on emissions trading and carbon pricing, see Practice Note: Brexit—emissions trading and carbon pricing.
Carbon pricing has been the most prominent instrument in efforts to address climate change. At the international level the Kyoto Protocol and its flexibility mechanisms (the Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM), Joint Implementation, and International Emissions Trading: arts 12, 6, 17 respectively) provided countries with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol with market-based means to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to national measures. In turn the Kyoto Protocol inspired the European Union’s Emission Trading System established by Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC (EU ETS Directive), which has since been followed by a wide variety of carbon pricing schemes, whether established, in
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This Practice Note considers the nature and scope of arbitration agreements with a particular focus on arbitration agreements pursuant to the law of England and Wales, although it also discusses the concept from an international perspective and includes some comparative examples from other
Dividends involve a distribution of cash or a distribution of non-cash assets (known as a distribution in kind or a distribution in specie).A scrip dividend (in a tax context, sometimes referred to as a stock dividend) allows a shareholder to receive new shares in a company as an alternative to a
Tipping off and prejudicing an investigationIt would undermine the benefit to the authorities if, a suspicious activity report (SAR) having been made, the alleged offender were to be made aware of the interest in their activities so that they could take steps to cover up their misdeeds or disappear.
Express and implied contractual terms distinguishedContractual terms may be either express or implied:•express terms—are terms which are actually recorded in a written contract or openly expressed in an oral contract at the time the contract is made (or there may be a combination of written and oral
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