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On 29 February 2016, the European Commission announced draft details of the EU–US Privacy Shield to replace the Safe Harbour Agreement and it quickly attracted widespread criticism from the Article 29 Working Party (the domestic data protection regulators), the European Data Protection Supervisor and the European Parliament.
Negotiations continued until 12 July 2016, when the Commission finally officially adopted the Privacy Shield framework and published the following documents:
EU-US Privacy Shield: Frequently Asked Questions
Factsheet: EU–US Privacy Shield
Communication: Transatlantic Data Flows: Restoring Trust through Strong Safeguards
From 1 August 2016, US organisations are able to self-certify themselves (as having adequate systems in place to safeguard data) with the US Department of Commerce (DoC). The Commission's decision of 12 July 2016 means that any organisation registered in this manner will be deemed to provide an adequate level of protection to the personal data of EU citizens.
Those organisations who register with the DoC before 1 October 2016 will have nine months from registration to bring their pre-existing commercial relationships with third parties to whom they transfer E
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Unlike many other countries, the UK has no unfair competition law. Brand owners seeking to prevent competitors from marketing ‘copycat’ products or using misleading advertising have to rely on a combination of different intellectual property rights. These rights include the common law right to
On 29 August 2015, the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) published the PRA Rulebook (Rulebook). The transition from the Handbook to the Rulebook was intended to benefit PRA-authorised firms, to access clearer and more concise rules. Alongside the Rulebook, supervisory statements and statements
On the disposition of a property (whether by way of conveyance, transfer or charge), the party making the disposition will normally provide a title guarantee which implies standard form covenants for title. A landlord may give a title guarantee when granting a lease, but this is rare in practice.
A limited company that proposes to issue redeemable shares must comply with the provisions of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006).Why do companies issue redeemable shares?A company may wish to issue redeemable shares so that it has an alternative way to return surplus capital to shareholders without
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