The following Property Q&A provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
The Energy Performance of Buildings (England and Wales) Regulations 2012 (EPC Regulations), SI 2012/3118 have been in force since 9 January 2013. They impose certain obligations upon the owners of buildings which they propose to sell or rent to third parties. They give effect to Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings.
It is helpful first to have in mind the definition of building for the purposes of the EPC Regulations, SI 2012/3118. By EPC Regulations, SI 2012/3118, reg 2(1), a building is ‘a roofed construction having walls, for which energy is used to condition the indoor climate’ and will generally extend to ‘a building unit in that building’. By that same regulation, ‘building unit’ means ‘means a section, floor or apartment within a building which is designed or altered to be used separately’ It will readily be seen, therefore, that it extends to any building which has some form of heating or air cooling apparatus in it which uses energy. Further, it extends to a unit in that building, which is defined as a self-contained flat or office.
The EPC Regulations, SI 2012/3118 create an obligation upon the relevant person to provide an ‘energy performance certificate’ (EPC). The relevant person is the owner of building to be sold or rented. As a
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Practical completion marks the end of the construction period of a project, when the works are 'finished' and the employer can occupy and/or use them. Practical completion also typically marks the start of the defects liability period/maintenance period.As explained below, practical completion is an
The primary function of office-holders in personal and corporate insolvency is to collect in the assets belonging to a company or individual and to distribute these to the company's or individual's creditors. Office-holders have various duties and powers in order to ensure that they do this. For
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IntroductionShari'ah (also Sharia, Shariah or Shari’a) (literally, in Arabic, 'the path towards the watering place') or Islamic law is the legal system of the religion of Islam that sets out a system of duties or code of conduct for individuals to follow so that they may live their life in a
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