The following Environment practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
The Bali Road Map was adopted at the Bali Climate Change Conference, the thirteenth conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 13) which also served as the third meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 3), in Indonesia in December 2007. The aim of the Parties had been to create an agreement that would replace the Kyoto Protocol from 2012. However, the Bali Road Map is not a binding commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was the beginning of a two year process that ended in 2009 at the Conference's fifteenth session in Copenhagen. For more information, see Practice Note: Copenhagen Accord 2009—snapshot.
For the first time, developing countries agreed to consider taking ‘measurable, reportable and verifiable’ mitigation actions. This was met by an agreement from developed countries to support these commitments with technology and finance and through capacity building. Developed countries also agreed to consider taking ‘commitments or actions’.
The Bali Road Map included the Bali Action Plan. The Road Map is a set of decisions that represents the work needed to negotiate a secure climate future. The Action Plan set down a comprehensive negotiating process designed to ensure
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When defendants are guilty, they have a choice to plead guilty or to put the prosecution to proof. When they plead guilty they may benefit from a reduction in their sentence as a result, see Practice Note: Credit for guilty plea. However, the Sentencing Council's overarching guidelines on reduction
Millett LJ subdivided types of constructive trust into two categories, distinguishing between:•the constructive trust proper, where equity intervenes to prevent the legal owner from unconscionably denying the beneficial interest of another (known as the institutional constructive trust)•the
There may be times when, rather than assigning the benefit of an agreement to a third party, the original parties wish instead to end their obligations to each other under that agreement and, in effect, recreate it, with the third party stepping into the shoes of one of the original parties. This is
IntroductionShari'ah (also Sharia, Shariah or Shari’a) (literally, in Arabic, 'the path towards the watering place') or Islamic law is the legal system of the religion of Islam that sets out a system of duties or code of conduct for individuals to follow so that they may live their life in a
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