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In the UK, Defra leads on new regulations resulting from the initial studies which focus on energy efficiency gains. Regulations are enforced by the National Measurement Office (NMO).
The European EuP Directive 2005/32/EC was a framework directive so the specific performance criteria and test requirements were set out in associated implementing measure or regulations. It was repealed by the Eco-Design Directive 2009/125/EC. The 2005 Directive was transposed into UK law by the Ecodesign for Energy-Using Products 2007, SI 2007/2037. However, it was revoked by the Eco-Design for Energy-Related Products Regulations 2010, SI 2010/2617. This transposed into UK legislation, the Eco-Design Directive 2009/125/EC, which aim to improve the environmental performance of products throughout their life cycle by integration of environmental aspects at a very early stage in product design.
Minimum EU energy and environmental performance standards are being set for over twenty products, including lighting. The technical requirements are set out in regulations, and the Market Transformation Programme (MTP) provides more information and the evidence underpinning the standards.
Incandescent bulbs are banned from sale within the EU (see European Commission Press Release: Member States approve the phasing-out of incan-descent bulbs by 2012). For further information on the stages of ecodesign requirement, see: EU Regulation on ecodesign requirements for non-directional household
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The Public Private Partnership (PPP) models are a popular way for governments to involve private investment, expertise and risk in procuring infrastructure, with the potential to deliver a project more efficiently and economically. One of the most popular PPP models for procuring infrastructure
A limited company that proposes to issue redeemable shares must comply with the provisions of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006).Why do companies issue redeemable shares?A company may wish to issue redeemable shares so that it has an alternative way to return surplus capital to shareholders without
For guidance on the basic features of the doctrine of estoppel and the different classifications it has been subject to, see Practice Note: Estoppel—what, when and how to plead and related content.Promissory estoppel—what is it?Where A has, by words or conduct, made to B a clear and unequivocal
A certificate of title (also known as a certificate on title) is a particular species of report on title.When solicitors are instructed to investigate title to land (for instance, when land is being acquired or offered up as security), they will write a report on title for their client, which sets
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