The following Competition practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
This Practice Note is important first stage reading for analysing vertical restraints, that is, restrictions in vertical agreements caught by Article 101(1) TFEU (see The prohibition on restrictive agreements) under competition law. It covers the European Commission’s vertical restraints policy, the circumstances in which a vertical restraint will not infringe competition law and specific current issues arising in relation to the application of competition law where the principles are not yet settled. It also covers the evolving practice of the UK competition authorities to vertical agreements.
This Practice Note makes frequent references to two legal instruments issued by the Commission that are designed to assist parties and their advisors in determining the compatibility of their arrangements with Article 101 TFEU, namely the Vertical Restraints Block Exemption (VRBE, Regulation 330/2010) and the Commission Guidelines on Vertical Restraints. These instruments also inform the approach of the UK competition authorities when applying UK competition law to an agreement that may affect trade between Member States.
See further, Competition law and exclusive distribution agreements, Competition law and selective distribution, Competition law and agency, Competition law and franchise agreements, The Vertical Restraints Block Exemption .
Agreements and practices which appreciably restrict competition fall into two broad categories:
high risk—anti-competitive agreements between competitors. Anti-competitive agreements between competitors are treated most severely under the competition rules. These are agreements made between
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Facilitating the performance of a duty by public officialsFacilitation payments, also known as facilitating or grease payments, are generally small amounts of money paid to public officials or others as a means of ensuring that they perform their duty, whether more promptly or at all. In some
This Practice Note identifies the main torts (bar negligence and nuisance, which are covered elsewhere in our related content) and their key characteristics. Specifically:•trespass to land•trespass to the person•privacy/defamation•liability for animals•employers' liability•product
Codicils may be used for making any alteration in a Will such as to alter the executors or make changes in legacies, whether by addition or deletion but that is by no means their only use. As a general rule, substantial changes are best achieved by means of a new Will and codicils are more
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