The following Environment practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
11 pm (GMT) on 31 December 2020 marks the end of the Brexit transition/implementation period entered into following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. At this point in time (referred to in UK law as ‘IP completion day’), key transitional arrangements come to an end and significant changes begin to take effect across the UK’s legal regime. Any changes relevant to this content will be set out below. For further guidance, see Practice Note: Brexit—impact on environmental law and News Analysis: Brexit Bulletin—key updates, research tips and resources.
The Montreal Protocol is designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to protect the ozone layer. The original protocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989. See Practice Note: Montreal Protocol 1987 (substances that deplete the ozone layer)—snapshot.
There have been seven revisions to the Montreal Protocol, with four principal amendments:
London Amendment 1990
Copenhagen Amendment 1992
Montreal Amendment 1997
Beijing Amendment 1999
On 15 October 2016, the Kigali Amendment was agreed by 197 Parties to reduce hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions by 2019. On 2 February 2017, the European Commission announced it has adopted a proposal for the EU to ratify the Kigali amendment. On 5 September 2017 the UK announced it has begun the process of ratification and on 14 November 2017 a further announcement
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Criminal offences are generally divided into two categories: •conduct crimes, and •result crimesA conduct crime is a crime where only the forbidden conduct needs to be proved. For example, an accused is guilty of dangerous driving if they drove a motor vehicle dangerously on a road or other public
This Practice Note considers proprietary estoppel from a generic standpoint.For industry specific guidance on proprietary estoppel, see Practice Notes:•Estoppel and property law•Mortgages by estoppelProprietary estoppel—what is it?Unlike the other forms of estoppel (see Practice Note: Estoppel—what,
Part 8 of the Corporation Tax Act 2009 (CTA 2009) is a specific corporation tax regime that applies exclusively to the gains and losses of intangible fixed assets. Note, however, that certain intangible fixed assets are excluded from the regime, see Practice Note: Excluded intangible fixed
The right to notice means a right for the employee to remain in employment for the period of notice, not simply to be paid for it. An employer will therefore often include in the contract an express right to make a payment in lieu of notice ('PILON') as an alternative to giving notice, to ensure
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