The following Environment practice note provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
As of exit day (31 January 2020) the UK is no longer an EU Member State. However, in accordance with the Withdrawal Agreement, the UK has entered an implementation period, during which it continues to be subject to EU law. This has an impact on this content.
For further guidance, see Practice Note: Brexit—impact on environmental law, and News Analysis: Brexit Bulletin—key updates, research tips and resources.
The Montreal Protocol is designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to protect the ozone layer. The original protocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989. See Practice Note: Montreal Protocol 1987 (substances that deplete the ozone layer)—snapshot.
There have been seven revisions to the Montreal Protocol, with four principal amendments:
London Amendment 1990
Copenhagen Amendment 1992
Montreal Amendment 1997
Beijing Amendment 1999
On 15 October 2016, the Kigali Amendment was agreed by 197 Parties to reduce hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions by 2019. On 2 February 2017, the European Commission announced it has adopted a proposal for the EU to ratify the Kigali amendment. On 5 September 2017 the UK announced it has begun the process of ratification and on 14 November 2017 a further announcement was made that ratification was completed.
In developed countries, first reductions are due in 2019. Most developing countries will freeze the level of
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This Practice Note considers the different categories of contractual damages that may be available for financial loss (pecuniary loss), ie expectation-based damages, reliance-based damages and gains-based damages.For guidance on contractual damages generally, see Practice Note: Contractual
This Practice Note provides an introduction to intercreditor agreements and their key provisions. This Practice Note:•explains the purpose of having an intercreditor agreement and when an intercreditor agreement would be used instead of a deed of priority or subordination deed•provides links to
What is a res judicata?A res judicata is a decision given by a judge or tribunal with jurisdiction over the cause of action and the parties, which disposes, with finality, of a matter decided so that it cannot be re-litigated by those bound by the judgment, except on appeal.Final judgments by
The offence of causing grievous bodily harm with intentWounding or causing grievous bodily harm (GBH) with intent is triable only in the Crown Court on indictment. Elements of the offence Under the Offences against the Person Act 1861 (OATPA 1861), the prosecution must prove the defendant unlawfully
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