The following Property Q&A Produced in partnership with Chris Bryden of 4 King’s Bench Walk provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
An Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rates the energy-efficiency of a building on a scale of A to G, A being the most efficient. It is unlawful for a landlord to let a commercial property without a valid exemption if it is rated at F or G for efficiency.
A landlord is required to have an EPC if they rent or sell premises; if a building that was under construction is completed; or if there are changes to the number of parts used for separate occupation which involve the provision of heating, air conditioning or ventilation systems. An EPC is valid for ten years. There are some exemptions, including short and long tenancies. An EPC must be provided by the seller or landlord free of charge to a prospective buyer or tenant at the earliest opportun
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Dividends involve a distribution of cash or a distribution of non-cash assets (known as a distribution in kind or a distribution in specie).A scrip dividend (in a tax context, sometimes referred to as a stock dividend) allows a shareholder to receive new shares in a company as an alternative to a
Coronavirus (COVID-19): The guidance detailing normal practice set out in this Practice Note may be affected by measures concerning process and procedure in the civil courts that have been introduced as a result of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. For guidance, see Practice Note: Coronavirus
There are two kinds of burden:•the legal burden, and•the evidential burdenThe legal burdenA party has the legal (sometimes called ‘the persuasive’) burden where the onus is on that party to prove a fact or issue in a case to the required standard of proof.The legal burden is generally on the
Deceit—what is it?A deceit occurs when a misrepresentation is made with the express intention of defrauding a party, subsequently causing loss to that party.The elements of a claim in deceit are:•a clear false representation of fact or law•fraud by the maker, in the sense that they knew that the
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