The following Environment practice note Produced in partnership with Laura Bolado provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:
11 pm (GMT) on 31 December 2020 marks the end of the Brexit transition/implementation period entered into following the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. At this point in time (referred to in UK law as ‘IP completion day’), key transitional arrangements come to an end and significant changes begin to take effect across the UK’s legal regime. Any changes relevant to this content will be set out below. For further guidance, see Practice Note: Brexit—impact on environmental law and News Analysis: Brexit Bulletin—key updates, research tips and resources.
The 2030 climate and energy framework set three key targets for the year 2030:
at least 40% cuts in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels
at least 27% share for renewable energy
at least 27% improvement in energy efficiency
In 2018 these targets were revised under the Clean Energy for All Europeans Package (the Clean Energy Package) as follows:
at least 45% cuts in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels
at least 32% share for renewable energy
at least 32.5% improvement in energy efficiency
The framework was adopted by European Union (EU) leaders in October 2014 (European Council meeting of October 2014). It builds on the 2020 EU Climate and Energy Package—snapshot.
The 2030 framework is in line
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This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
The principles of the notarial act are that it is:•an act of the notary and not of the parties named in the document•a record of a fact, event or transaction•in the form of a document, notwithstanding the form of the underlying document, fact, event or transactionThe purpose of the notarial act is
What is QOCS?Qualified one-way costs shifting (QOCS) was introduced on 1 April 2013 as part of the Jackson costs reforms following the removal of a claimant’s right to recover additional liabilities from the defendant, ie success fees and after the event (ATE) insurance premiums. The relevant CPR
What is recklessness?In respect of some statutory offences and common law crimes the prosecution are required to prove a mental element of recklessness on the part of the defendant.Recklessness means unjustified risk taking on the part of the accused.Prior to the House of Lords decision in Re G
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