1960 Paris Convention—snapshot
Produced in partnership with Herbert Smith Freehills
1960 Paris Convention—snapshot

The following Energy practice note Produced in partnership with Herbert Smith Freehills provides comprehensive and up to date legal information covering:

  • 1960 Paris Convention—snapshot
  • International liability regime for nuclear damage
  • Linked conventions
  • Aims of the Paris Convention
  • Who is liable?
  • What damage does the Paris Convention cover?
  • Is the operator’s liability limited?
  • Financial security
  • Limitation period
  • Future of the Paris Convention
  • More...

TitleConvention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (Paris Convention)
Parties16 parties
Revisions1963 Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention (Brussels Supplementary Convention—entered into force on 4 December 1974)
1964 Protocol—entered into force on 1 April 1968
1982 Protocol—entered into force on 7 October 1988
2004 Protocol—not yet in force
LocationParis
Adopted29 July 1960
Came into force1 April 1968
SubjectNuclear liability

International liability regime for nuclear damage

Civil liability for nuclear damage is governed by two major conventions:

  1. 1960 Paris Convention Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (Paris Convention); and

  2. 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention)

The conventions share similar core principles:

  1. liability lies exclusively with the operator of the nuclear installation—this removes the need for other parties to take out insurance, such as those involved with the construction and operation of a nuclear installation

  2. the operator's liability is strict, ie the operator is held liable irrespective of fault or negligence, except in limited circumstances (such as nuclear damage caused by armed conflict, civil war , insurrection, gross negligence of the victim, or as a direct result of a grave natural disaster of an exceptional character). The only proof that is necessary is that the damage for which compensation is sought was caused by a nuclear accident;

  3. liability is limited in amount—this makes it easier for an operator to

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