Sanctions for doping infractions include an automatic disqualification of individual results1, provisional suspension2 and a period of ineligibility from competition ranging from four years for first offence for a non specified substance unless it can be established that the anti-doping rule violation was not intentional3 to lifetime ineligibility for subsequent offences4. Where an athlete can establish how a prohibited substance entered the body and that its purpose was not to enhance sporting ability or for masking purposes by means of corroborating evidence the period of ineligibility may be reduced or exceptionally5 be replaced with a reprimand6. Where an athlete
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