185. Joint buying.

In the downstream markets joint buying arrangements may also be an unlawful restriction on competition1, in particular when the exclusive acquisition of sports media rights leads to foreclosure and output restrictions as a result of vertical restraints in agreements between seller and buyer or by horizontal agreements between different buyers. The Commission has dealt with a number of cases where remedies were necessary to address situations where a powerful retail operator (or a joint buying consortium of retail operators) on one platform foreclosed access to exclusive content for operators in the same or neighbouring markets