178. Fixing of fines.

The amount of any fine fixed by a court must be such as, in the opinion of the court, reflects the seriousness of the offence1, and in fixing the amount of any fine to be imposed on an offender (whether an individual or other person), a court must take into account the circumstances of the case including, among other things, the financial circumstances of the offender so far as they are known, or appear, to the court2.

Where an offender:


    (1)     has been convicted3 in his absence4;


    (2)     has been convicted in his absence