509. Violent or illegal assemblies.

It is clearly established that Article 111 does not protect assemblies where the organisers and participants have violent intentions that result in violent disorder2. To determine whether a demonstration is peaceful, the courts will look at the intention of the organisers: a distinction will be drawn between violence which is incidental to the assembly and violence which is intended by the organisers3. An individual does not lose the right to peaceful assembly if he remains peaceful while others commit acts of violence or criminality in the course of the demonstration4, from which it follows that non-violent assemblies will retain