230. Treatment causing physical or mental suffering.

Examples of inhuman or degrading treatment causing physical suffering for the purposes of the Article 3 prohibition1 include: severely overcrowded prison conditions2; handcuffing a patient to the bed following major surgery when there was no danger of absconding3; using force to administer an emetic to a suspected drug mule4; and failing to protect a woman from domestic violence5. Examples of treatment causing mental anguish and distress that have fallen within the scope of the Article 3 prohibition