244. The protective obligation.

The Article 3 prohibition1 imposes a positive protective obligation on the state to take reasonable operational measures to protect individuals against Article 3 treatment of which the authorities have or ought to have knowledge2. This obligation is closely related to the duty to protect individuals against risks to their lives arising under the Article 2 right to life guarantee3. As with the obligation under the Article 2 guarantee, the precise circumstances in which the protective or 'operational' obligation under the Article 3 prohibition will arise remain somewhat uncertain4. The obligation under the Article 2 guarantee has been found to