432. States' obligations in cases of child abduction.

In child abduction cases the positive obligation of the state under Article 81 to respect the relationship between parent and child has to be interpreted in light of the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction2. The Convention presumes a prompt return of the child to the state of habitual residence for the courts of that state to make any further decisions about the child's custody, contact arrangements or welfare3