579. Sex.

The European Court of Human Rights has found that there has been discrimination on the grounds of sex1 in connection with:

  1.  

    (1)     immigration rules which permitted non-patrial men, but not non-patrial women, to be joined by their spouses or fiancées2;

  2.  

    (2)     the refusal of a state invalidity benefit to a woman on the basis that, as a mother, she would not have engaged in paid work in any event3;

  3.  

    (3)     a law which prevented a husband from putting his own surname before a family name even though this was a right permitted to married women who adopted their husband's