616. School discipline.

Although reasonable disciplinary measures to discipline pupils may not breach the right to education under Article 2 of Protocol 11, suspension or exclusion from school must be justified as necessary and proportionate, and in determining whether or not an exclusion resulted in a denial of the right to education the Court will consider whether a fair balance was struck between the exclusion and the justification given for that measure2; the duration of the exclusion; the extent of the co-operation shown by the pupil or his parents with respect to attempts to re-integrate him; the efforts of the school authorities