427. Same-sex marriage and civil partnership.

National laws which do not permit same-sex marriage do not violate Article 121 because the exercise of rights under that Article is subject to the national laws of each particular state2. However, the European Court of Human Rights has noted that although the choice of wording in Article 12 ('Men and women . . . have the right to marry')3 had to be regarded as deliberate, the institution of marriage had undergone major social changes since the adoption of the convention and there was no European consensus regarding same-sex marriage