543. Right to associate is a qualified right.

Article 111 is a qualified right which can be restricted in the interests of national security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, or for the protection of health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others2. Any interference with Article 11 must be prescribed by law, in pursuit of one of the legitimate aims3, necessary in a democratic society and proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued4. Restrictions on the right to associate should be narrowly construed in recognition of the role that associations play in expressing identity and culture and promoting participation in a