102. Restriction must be sufficiently foreseeable.

The requirement that a restriction on a qualified Convention right be sufficiently foreseeable1 means that the meaning and consequences of a legal provision must be reasonably foreseeable to those who might be affected by it2. There is no requirement of absolute certainty3. Legal provisions capable of more than one construction do not necessarily breach the foreseeability rule and common law offences whose content may change over time will not breach the rule as long as any development is reasonably foreseeable and consistent with the essence of the offence