446. Religious freedom in the context of military service.

In relation to military service the European Court of Human Rights has held1 that military discipline implies by its very nature the possibility of placing certain limitations on the rights and freedoms of members of the armed forces which could not be imposed on civilians2. The Court has also held that although Article 9 does not explicitly refer to a right to conscientious objection, opposition to military service constitutes a conviction or belief of sufficient cogency, seriousness, cohesion and importance that states should not be allowed to refuse recognition of conscientious objection